French composer born 24 January 1932 in Paris.
The only French composer of her generation that may be considered a pioneer of music for synthesiser, Éliane Radigue created an aesthetic in which acoustic beating between frequencies replaces rhythm and other, more traditional means of organising sounds. Radigue’s compositional process, which, for the most part, consisted of recording and mixing sounds produced by synthesisers on magnetic tape, was meticulous, with each work taking up to three years to complete. Nonetheless, her catalogue of electronic works comprises more than 20 hours of music, making her one of the most prolific artists in the field.
In 1955, Radigue met Pierre Schaeffer, and soon thereafter became an intern at the French National Radio/Television Experimental Studio. While there, she learned the techniques of musique concrète, and advocated the medium in lectures in Dusseldorf, Amsterdam, Darmstadt, and the Côte d’Azur. The wife of artist Arman and mother of three children, Radigue left Schaeffer and Henry’s studio in 1958 to raise her family, while nonetheless taking harp and music theory lessons at the Nice Conservatory. From 1967 to 1968, she once again worked with Pierre Henry at the Apsome Studio, serving as his assistant for the creation of La Messe de Liverpool and L’Apocalypse de Jean. It was around this time that Radigue composed her first known works, using audio feedback and with asynchronous structures that resulted from looping sections of tape. However, she received little recognition in France for her early compositions.
It was in the experimental “downtown” scene in New York that Radigue was first taken seriously as an artist. While in New York, she became acquainted with figures including James Tenney, Malcom Goldstein, Philip Glass, Steve Reich, La Monte Young, Phill Niblock, Alvin Lucier, and John Cage, among others. From 1970 to 1971, Radigue was composer-in-residence at New York University School of the Arts, where she had access to the Buchla Series 100 modular synthesiser (one of the first ever created) in Morton Subotnik’s studio. Towards the end of her time in New York, Radigue experimented with Moog, Electrocomp (EML), Putney (EMS), and ARP 2500 synthesisers. She purchased her own ARP 2500 and took it back with her to Paris, composing almost exclusively using this instrument, and becoming a veritable virtuoso on it, over the next several decades. Her first works for synthesiser garnered considerable attention in the United States, and in 1973, Radigue was again offered a composition residency, this time at the electronic music studios of CalArts and Iowa University.
In 1974, Radigue discovered Tibetan Buddhism and undertook a spiritual retreat with lama Pawo Rinpoche; she only returned to composition in 1978. Upon her return to composing, Radigue wrote a series of masterpieces of electronic music: Adnos II and III, and a large-scale cycle dedicated to Tibetan yogi Jetsun Milarepa. In 1984, Radigue was awarded a grant from the French government which allowed her to compose Chants de Milarepa for synthesiser and the voices of lama Kunga Rinpoché and Robert Ashley (including translations into English by lama Kunga Rinpoché of excerpts from Milarepa’s “The Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa”). In 1986, Radigue received a commission from the French state for further work on the cycle.
In 2006, Radigue was awarded the prestigious Prix Ars Electronica for her final work for recorded modular synthesiser, L’îIe re-sonante (2000).
Since 2001, after some 40 years of working with the ARP 2500, Radigue only collaborates with instrumentalists, and applies a process of composition which resembles the means of oral transmission of traditional music. The first such collaboration was initiated by contrabassist Kasper T. Toeplitz. Subsequent projects in this vein include the three Naldjorlak, as well as the monumental Occam Océan, performed by some of the most esteemed musicians of our time. This cycle (still in progress) already comprises more than 70 pieces for instrumental forces ranging from solo to orchestral.
Radigue’s music has been programmed in numerous prestigious festivals, and continues to be premiered throughout Europe and the United States in a wide range of settings, from loft spaces to major concert halls, galleries, and museums.
© Ircam-Centre Pompidou, 2019
Éditions Aedam Musicae ; Éliane Radigue.
By Emanuelle Majeau-Bettez
“Perhaps I was influenced by Morton Feldman a few years ago when he wryly mentioned that, since this is the Jet Age, everyone thinks that we ought to have Jet Age music to go with it. […] quite a bit of the music written today is still oriented toward speed, loudness, virtuosity, and maximum input, Eliane Radigue’s music is the antithesis of all that.”
Tom Johnson, The Village Voice1
In Search of the Infinitesimal
Éliane Radigue dedicated – and is still dedicating – her career to the discovering, and above all listening to, the minutest activities of the world of sound. Each of the composer’s works has been written on this quest, which has as its central goal to create a framework in which it is possible to contemplate the natural micro-oscillations that exist between frequencies. A form of creation in which the play between overtones somehow replaces all forms of organization exterior to the sound itself. This is composition starting from the sound material, in which temporality ceases to be seen as an external structure to be imposed by the composer and instead is made into something inherent to, emerging from, and indissociably connected to the inner life of sound.
Radigue’s catalogue is easily divided into three periods; however, this division is far more technical than creative. In her “sonic propositions” of the late 1960s – as Radigue called her first works, built by using feedback and reinjection between two tape recorders – or her large-scale and pioneering work for modular synthesizers, which began in the 1970s and continued through the 2000s, or her more recent collaborations with performers, Radigue has maintained a single aesthetic goal: to listen to the internal activity of sound. However rich with possibility, feedback techniques and modular synthesizers were only means to that end: behind the technique was always the same sonic dream world.
There are myriad arguments in favour of placing both Radigue and her work at the margins of the main aesthetic currents of the second half of the twentieth century. Essentially a self-taught composer, Radigue followed a course that travelled between (and sometimes circumvented) multiple spheres dominated by men and by institutional hierarchies. While this marginalisation is undeniable, one must not neglect the fact that for Radigue, there was nothing more important than the pursuit of sound: for more than six decades, Radigue kept her sights fixed on her own aesthetic horizon. For this reason, it would be more accurate to qualify her musical career as extraordinary, and even obstinate, rather than as marginal. If, as composer and critic Tom Johnson notes in the epigraph, Radigue’s music seemed at times to exist in direct opposition to certain currents, it is nevertheless more accurate to describe the various ways in which Radigue’s music was received as motivated by a certain element of surprise, by discovery, among all the artistic “statements” of the time, a music emerging from who knew where, headed always in the same direction, and seeming, in this way, to have always existed.
In terms of sound research, Radigue can be linked to some of her minimalist colleagues in the United States, or even to those of the minimalist diaspora. In particular, Charlemagne Palestine, Phill Niblock, and above all La Monte Young come to mind: Young, it may be argued, participated in the establishment of a musical minimalism that sought to explore the inner life of sound2. Nevertheless, it is important to limit comparisons between Radigue’s work and minimalism to a shared interest in intrinsic sound activity. Harmonically, Radigue distanced herself from the stasis of drone-based music. Politically, Radigue’s practice was not motivated by any active rejection of the academy or of any particular aesthetic current. While minimalism was at times considered to be “a weapon with which to challenge the hegemony of postwar serialism3”, such a definition hardly offers a satisfying portrait of the artistic goals and social positions of this composer. In parallel – rather than in opposition – to all these different aesthetic outlooks, Radigue, year after year, followed her own path, ignoring, as much as possible, anything that might keep her from her quest. For a quest it was: each work of Radigue’s is a part of an experimental process that leads back to what she considers to be the basis for thinking about sound. Listening, according to this process, focuses on a sound’s traits, independent of its cause or its possible meaning4. With Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Henry, Radigue found affirmation of the potential she perceived in this “reduced listening.” In addition to the techniques of classification, mixing, and premixing that she used throughout her career, this insight into sound is perhaps the most important legacy of Radigue’s time with her first mentors. Listening is primordial – a form of listening that also resembles what Pauline Oliveros called “deep listening,” or what John Cage portrayed in his celebrated “Silence.” Attention to sound activity as it occurs, without turning it into a vehicle for a theory or for the expression of human feeling. An apprenticeship in the freedom of sound.
Playing with interference, Part I: gesture and listening
Without necessarily describing it as pre-spectral, certain aspects of Radigue’s music are comparable to the work of Scelsi. This is true in the sense that their work – largely intuitive – plunges both listener and performer into the very heart of a sound. Intensively, at a microscopic scale, the music plays with nuance, modulation, variations in energy, and changes in texture. While most of Radigue’s works undeniably have a fundamental, that pitch is rapidly forgotten, overcome by the natural harmonics that emerge from it. For performers of her music and for Radigue herself, the sound material therefore comes mostly from working with overtones, micro-beats, and pulsations, which come to resemble precarious – even wraithlike – lacework that can only be obtained by sustained sounds, played between pianissimo and piano. From time to time, a mezzo forte appears, placed with great care: if the fundamental is played too insistently, it overpowers the musical discourse and in one fell swoop it wipes out the whole filigreed world – the impalpable micro-beats that are the very soul of Radigue’s work.
Underpinning any execution of the composer’s work is the fragility of the sound material. The fruit of accidents and of patterns of interference, the sounds of her first works with feedback are extremely difficult to control, and can only be produced with the lightest of touches, a tactile pleasure to which Radigue would later return when she encountered modular synthesizers, and which she transmits to the musicians collaborating with her today. Patient gestures are required to perform any of her works – but even more than that, patient listening: sounds must be taken as they appear. In Jouet électronique (1967), the potentiometers (for recording and/or playing) must be controlled using the barest of manipulations, extraordinarily precise and delicate gestures that make it possible for beats to emerge from a reinjection loop between two tape recorders. Similarly, to produce the purring sound of the Larsen effect, Radigue had to find the proper distance between the tape recorders and then make miniscule adjustments at exactly the right time; if not, the “untamed” sounds might self-destruct. Later, the greater stability of modular synthesizers allowed her to make imperceptible changes to the oscillations of sustained sounds. In Chryp-tus (1971), her first piece for synthesizer on tape, composed with a Buchla synthesizer, one hears Radigue playing with the whole panoply of variations within a sound. The piece captures the composer’s encounter with an object that finally gave her the pleasure of playing with harmonics, something that was only possible very exceptionally when using feedback techniques. Producing low pulsations, all the way to the tiniest of beats, required utmost delicacy of touch – and tremendous patience was needed to move the potentiometers by no more than a hair. Radigue actually never used synthesizer keyboards – which were available for the ARP 2500 – out of a fear Don Buchla himself had expressed, of falling into the habits of piano, and in this way losing the sensory pleasures of gesture and listening unique to the instrument.
Éliane Radigue with her ARP 2500 synthesizer, Paris, 1972, ©Yves Arman
From her earliest collaborations with performers, Radigue took pains to teach the gestural virtuosity required for her compositions, which she had until that point been developing in isolation, in front of a synthesizer, for more than forty years. Specifically, beyond the technology being used, it was the fragility of the sound material (more than the composer herself) that demanded this kind of gestural and auditory patience. For example, in Occam Delta XV (2018), an instrumental piece Radigue wrote for the Quatuor Bozzini, the musicians essentially play the same pitches, but a few cents apart. When held, these “out of tune” pitches produce patterns of interference, or beats, that can sound like a distinct note. The resulting music can form what clarinettist Carol Robinson has described as a large sound balloon floating through the performance. The metaphor is perfect: as in Radigue’s feedback work, the shock of an overly abrupt attack might propel the sound material of these instrumental pieces back into the abyss from which it emerged. Moreover, during the performance, the inevitable accumulation of these independent frequencies renders vastly more complex the distinction between the notes actually being played on the instrument and the notes that result from these frequencies as they brush together. A paradox emerges from the playing of these compositions: they require a tremendous degree of instrumental precision to create a music that “makes itself,” escaping the control of its performers. In other words, the composer’s music does not so much do away with all forms of control as it pushes its performers to adopt a very specific type of mastery of the sound. It requires virtuosity, to be sure, but one that is above all anchored in listening and respect, to achieve a kind of sound performance that appears to come alive just beyond the boundaries of the instrumental performance itself. Performers of her music, like the composer herself, devote their energy to creating a space in which the sound’s interiority can deploy itself, and exist on its own terms.
Just as the eye must adjust to drastic changes in luminosity, it can take some time for the listener’s ear to perceive the detail that exists at this scale of sound. “Is this still the silence of the auditorium? Has the piece already begun?” certain audience members seem to wonder at the beginning of a Radigue concert, slightly perplexed to observe others, who, already familiar with her style, have settled in with eyes closed in intense concentration. This polarizing effect, which has always been a trait of Radigue’s work, is the result of a singular phenomenon: musical events that take place at such a micro-level can only be made to happen in “macro” time; that is, at a rate so extremely slow that it falls beyond the perceptive capabilities of hearing. If, at a given moment, the hearer perceives that a modulation has indeed occurred, it is nearly impossible for them to know precisely where and how the change took place.
Some people have compared this phenomenon to experiences of contemplation or of observing nature. A river and its currents come to mind, swirling, bubbling, and eddying, creating a surface that is, to cite a Verlaine poem Radigue loves, “each time not quite the same, nor yet completely other.” More drastically, some have evoked a flower or a tree whose growth cannot be perceived in situ. Radigue has maintained many ties to the world of the visual arts, and in that arena, one might compare her work to the Wandarbeiten (wall works) of the artist Mauser, who is a member of the Wandelweiser collective. Made from translucent paper, the works are glued to the white walls of the exhibit space, so that at first glance the room seems completely empty of art. One’s perception of the space changes with the light: at certain angles, it is captured by the paper, seeming to appear and disappear almost ineffably.
Mauser *Wandarbeiten*. Kunstraum Düsseldorf, 2006, ©Elmar Engelbertz
Radigue’s work invites a tremendous degree of sensory acuity; it requires a certain sensory resilience, even a letting go; this is the space into which the porous boundary between silence and music can unwind. Listening thus becomes an immersive experience at two levels. It is a dive down into the minuscule and maze-like world of sound itself, and, simultaneously, a melting together of the imperceptible developments in the sound, which in turn melt into the silence and the size of the performance space. Radigue’s music often steals forth from silence as if it had always been there.
Moreover, and in another parallel to the Wandarbeiten, certain sounds in the composer’s work seem at times to be emanating directly from the walls. This was quite literally true at the premiere of Omnht (1970). As in Usral (1969), one of her earlier feedback pieces, the three long asynchronous tape loops of Omnht overlap and interfere with one another, creating a music that transforms impalpably, filling the space. For the premiere, Radigue hid Rolen Star loudspeakers behind the partitions of an installation by the artist Tania Mouraud. Even at this early point, it was already crucial to her to make the space “resonate”, investing great care in its acoustic response in order to create a sound that could not be traced back to a specific source, in this way creating a pervasively interesting story.
Tania Mouraud installation for which Omnht was composed, Galerie Rive Droite, 1968, © Pariscope
Nearly all of the pieces from this “feedback” period (among them ∑=a=b=a+b , Usral , Opus 17 , Vice-Versa, etc. ) were composed for art galleries or similar spaces. Because of their material and the spaces in which they were premiered, these early Radigue works can be defined in hindsight as precursors of the sound installation. Immersive environments, in other words, in which Radigue was playing not just with interference at the material level (recorded feedback, superimposition of different tapes), but with the resonance of the space itself. Tom Johnson, in his review for the Village Voice, was one of the first people to note this. Writing about Psi 847 (1973), which was composed with an ARP 2500 synthesizer, he observed that he had heard certain patterns emanating from unexpected corners:
They were all produced by the same loudspeakers, and many of them seemed to come directly out of the loudspeakers. But some of the sounds seemed to ooze out of the side wall, and others seem to emanate from specific points near the ceiling5.
While this phenomenon does not belong exclusively to Radigue, it is correct to affirm, as Johnson did, that the composer’s work succeeds in drawing attention to this play with acoustics, which go completely unremarked in a great deal of other music. There is a fairly simple explanation for this peculiarity: space, to Radigue, is literally a core part of the development of the sound material, since this material is formed by a natural accumulation of frequencies throughout the work. Musical motifs and textures emerge from sustained pitches, and almost always from the silence of the room, slowly filling it. For this reason, it is a music that makes space resonate in and for itself. This approach places Radigue among the “aural architects” described by Barry Blesser: in diametric opposition to acoustical engineers that transform a space by creating directed, optimized listening areas, Radigue “focus[es] on the way that listeners experience the space6”. This attention to the aural experience was something Radigue prioritized throughout her career. She even shocked certain sound engineers when, for the broadcast of a work for synthesizer recorded on tape, she insisted on placing her loudspeakers in a “completely anti-acoustic fashion”. Radigue’s music does not guide the ear toward a narrative and does not impose any specific timbre; instead, it exposes the listener to a kind of sound play. The non-directionality of this proposal, which is not addressed to the intellect so much as it is intended for the whole body, can be startling. Immersed, the ear filters, selects, finds its own slipstream among the swirling eddies of undulating sound. A music that, in the words of Michel Chion, “demands a great deal of presence, and beside which all other music appears to be tugging at the listener’s sleeve7”.
Playing with interference, part 2: modular generation
Larsen effects, reinjection, Tartini tones: from Radigue’s earliest feedback pieces, the material was filled with sounds that, in a way, generated themselves and proliferated on their own. Through interference, Radigue’s music forms a whole that cannot be reduced to the sum of its parts. Moreover, with Accroméga (1968), Radigue began exploring this self-generating effect beyond sound recording, experimenting with different lengths of tape loop. Juxtaposed, the tapes feel imperceptibly out of synch throughout the performance, playing with the ways in which the recorded beats rub up against each other, only returning to their initial synchrony after several hundred hours. In 1970, she presented ∑=a=b=a+b. Engraved on two 45s, the piece can be played in different combinations, at different speeds. Similarly, the two stereo tracks of Vice-versa, etc… can be played together or separately, at different speeds, forward or backward, on several tape players. The pulsations, obtained with feedback and recorded on two tracks, interfere with each other through juxtaposition, according to the wishes of the person playing them.
Vinyl recording of ∑=a=b=a+b, © Julia Eckhardt
The duration and structure of these first works were therefore already organized according to modular logic, in the sense that the piece’s essence was defined by a certain combinatory potential. As on a modular synthesizer (whose independent modules can be connected in order to add different effects to a given sound-producing signal), ∑=a=b=a+b and Vice-versa, etc… allow the performer to select parameters for speed, direction, and number of tracks used from among a variety of possible groupings. Even before it is played, the work is ontologically multiple.
Because of the tools she adopted for their composition, Radigue’s pieces for ARP, Buchla, Moog, or Serge synthesizers inevitably have a modular dimension, but it is perhaps in her most recent project with performers, Occam Océan— a large-scale project created by fusing several pre-existing pieces – that Radigue can be seen returning to her early love of combination. The cycle’s twenty-seven solos, made-to-measure for each musician, are assembled to form duets, trios, quartets, and quintets, all the way to a large ensemble, Occam Océan. The work is by definition incomplete, in that it cannot be completed; in it, one hears the culmination of nearly sixty years of sound searching. The material places the performers – even more than the audience – in the role of the listener. Radigue proposes applying the principle of parsimony – Occam’s razor – to what they hear, and that is what sets the length of each performance. This reasoning is both a performance guide for the musicians, and a decisive factor in the structuring of the work. For example, if, in concert, a section does not achieve the desired intensity, the musicians are supposed to move on to the next one immediately, rather than struggling to hold something that does not come naturally. By contrast, when a section sounds magnificent, the musicians are encouraged to hold it for as long as they can, to maintain the pleasure. Thus, the length of each section of the work is determined by what seems to be the simplest option for the performer in the heat of the moment. Broadly speaking, Radigue’s music resists all forced behaviour: the musicians are not to execute the sound so much as they are to keep its activity in balance. Their role is to maintain a space in which the inner life of the sounds they are holding can emerge. Communicated orally by Radigue, the cycle’s pieces, in addition to their potential combinations with already existing pieces, can be passed on again. As of this writing, only one such expansion has taken place, but it was enough to make one thing clear: learning a work by Radigue is not a matter of creating a faithful reproduction that can be passed from one instrumentalist to another. Rather, it is a matter of shared sensibility, anchored above all in listening, that seeks to set free the inner life of sound, the key to all of Radigue’s artistic searching.
Since the 1960s, Radigue has been building a catalogue whose function as an aesthetic whole cannot be denied. The composer herself describes this, declaring that she has been composing essentially the same music her entire life. In this sense, the image of a towering, permanent “installation,” erected by Radigue over the course of her career is tempting in its monumentality. But that would not do her justice: while certainly marked by the determination of her unitary and single-minded quest, Radigue’s catalogue cannot be limited to the static space evoked by the idea of an installation. More fluid, and lighter, it makes itself beyond the grasp of performers at the sound level – and, in its play with combinations, beyond the grasp of the composer herself. Radigue’s work is, quite literally, free and alive.
- Johnson, Tom, “Minimal Material: Eliane Radigue”, in The Voice of New Music: New York City 1972-1982, Eindhoven, Het Apollohuis, 1973. Available online at https://charliemorrow.com/pdfs/TheVoiceOfNewMusic.pdf (accessed on 16 December 2021).
- Potter, Keith, “Minimalism (USA),” in Grove Music Online, 2019.
https://doi.org/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.A2257002 (link verified on 23 January 2020).
- “Minimalism (USA).”
- Chion, Michel and Claudia Gorbman, Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen, New York, Columbia University Press, 2019.
- The Voice of New Music.
- Blesser, Barry and Linda-Ruth Salter, Spaces Speak: Are You Listening?: Experiencing Aural Architecture, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 2007.
- Chion, Michel and Guy Reibel, Les musiques électroacoustiques, Aix-en-Provence, INA GRM edisud, 1979.
© Ircam-Centre Pompidou, 2020
- Solo (excluding voice)
- Occam XV for clarinet in C ()
- elec Geelriandre music for sounds fixed on support (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) and solo music (prepared piano, played by Gérard Frémy) (1972), 25 mn
- elec Schlinen music for sounds fixed on a medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) and solo music (Ondes Martenot) (1974), 12 mn
- Naldjorlak I for cello (2005), 40 mn about
- Occam I for harp (2011)
- Occam II for violin (2012)
- Occam III for birbynė (2012), 20 mn about
- Occam IV for viola (2012)
- elec Occam VI for EMS synthesizer (2012)
- elec Occam IX for digital spring spyre (2013)
- Occam V for cello (2013)
- Occam VIII for cello (2013)
- Occam X for trumpet (2014)
- Occam XI for tuba (2014)
- Occam XIX for five-string double bass (2014), 30 mn [program note]
- Occam XVI for bass clarinet (2014), 23 mn about
- Occam XVIII for contrabass recorder (2014)
- elec Occam XX for EMS synthesizer (2014)
- Occam XIII for bassoon (2015)
- Occam XXI for violin (2015)
- Occam XVII for double bass (2016)
- Occam XII for viola (2017)
- Occam XIV for harp (2017)
- Occam XXIII for alto saxophone (2018)
- Occam XXIV for alto and bass flute (2018)
- Occam XXV for organ (2018), 40 mn about
- Occam XXVI for percussion (2018)
- Occam XXVII for bagpipes (2019)
- Chamber music
- Occam Delta VI for bassoon, two violas and cello ()
- Occam River VII for bassoon and cello ()
- Occam River XVII for violin and harp ()
- Occam River XVIII for double bass and harp ()
- Occam River XX for two harps ()
- Occam River XXI for tuba and harp ()
- Naldjorlak II for two basset horns (2007), 50 mn about
- Naldjorlak III for two basset horns and cello (2009), 50 mn about
- Occam Delta I for birbynė, violin, viola and harp (2012)
- Occam Delta II for bass clarinet, viola and harp (2012), 30 mn about
- Occam River I for birbynė and viola (2012), 25 mn about
- Occam Delta III for violin, viola and cello (2013)
- Occam Delta IV for tuba, cello and harp (2013)
- Occam Delta V for bass clarinet, tuba, cello and harp (2013), 20 mn about
- Occam Hexa I for bass clarinet, tuba, viola, cello and harp (2013), 24 mn about
- Occam River II for violin and cello (2013)
- Occam Delta VII for two violas and cello (2014)
- Occam River III for birbynė and trumpet (2014), 22 mn about
- Occam River IV for tuba and cello (2014)
- Occam River IX for two violas (2014)
- Occam River V for viola and cello (2014)
- Occam River VI for contrabass recorder and harp (2014)
- Occam River VIII for bass clarinet and five-string double bass (2014), 26 mn about
- Occam Delta IX for bassoon, tuba and cello (2015)
- Occam Delta VIII for bassoon, tuba, cello and harp (2015)
- Occam Delta XVII for bassoon, cello and harp (2015)
- Occam Hexa II for flute, clarinet, viola, cello and percussion (2015)
- Occam River X for bassoon and tuba (2015)
- Occam River XI for bassoon and cello (2015)
- Occam River XII for cello and harp (2015)
- Occam Delta XI for violin, viola and bassoon (2016)
- Occam Hexa III for trumpet, bassoon, bass clarinet, violin, viola and five-string double bass (2016), 27 mn about
- Occam Hexa IV for two violins, viola, cello and double bass (2016)
- Occam Delta XII for bass flute, bass clarinet and cello (2017)
- Occam River XIII for bassoon and harp (2017)
- Occam River XIV for harp and five-string double bass (2017)
- Occam River XV for violin and double bass (2017)
- Occam River XVI for birbynė and harp (2017), 54 mn about
- Occam Delta X for trombone, horn and tuba (2018)
- Occam Delta XV for string quartet (2018)
- Occam Delta XVI for bassoon, tuba and harp (2018)
- Occam Hepta I for guitar, viola, trombone, trumpet, violin, bassoon, cello (2018)
- Occam River XXII for bass clarinet and saxophone (2018), 28 mn about
- Occam Delta XIII for bass clarinet, harp and five-string double bass (2019), 35 mn about [program note]
- Occam Delta XIV for harp, violin and double bass (2019)
- Occam River XXVII for bass clarinet and harp (2020), 20 mn [program note]
- Instrumental ensemble music
- Occam Océan I for large ensemble (2015), 55 mn about
- Vocal music and instrument(s)
- A cappella vocal music
- Electronic music / fixed media / mechanical musical instruments
- elec Jouet électronique music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on magnetic tapes) (1967), 11 mn 55 s
- elec Accroméga music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on 2 asynchronous looped magnetic tapes) (1968), variable
- elec Elemental I music for sounds fixed on a medium (natural sounds processed in feedback on magnetic tapes) (1968), 11 mn 23 s
- elec Étude pour harpe I & II music for sounds fixed on a medium (for harp played with a razor, editing on magnetic tape) (1968), 9 mn
- elec In memoriam — Ostinato music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback by reinjection between two tape recorders, on magnetic tape) (1969), 24 mn 13 s
- elec stage Usral music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on 3 magnetic tapes of different lengths, asynchronous looped) (1969), variable
- elec ∑=a=b=a+b for Fahri, music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on magnetic tape) (1969), variable
- elec La noire = 40 music for sounds fixed on medium (feedback on magnetic tape) (1970)
- elec stage Omnht music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on magnetic tape) (1970), variable
- elec Opus 17 music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on magnetic tape) (1970), 1 h 36 mn
- elec Stress Osaka music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on magnetic tape) (1970), 11 mn 36 s
- elec Vice-Versa, etc... music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on magnetic tapes) (1970), variable
- elec 7th birth music for fixed sounds (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1971), 60 mn
- elec Chryp-tus music for fixed sounds (Buchla modular synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1971), 24 mn about
- elec Arthésis music for sounds fixed on support (Moog modular synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1973), 25 mn
- elec Biogénésis music for sounds fixed on a support (heartbeats and ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1973), 22 mn
- elec Psi 847 music for sounds fixed on support (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1973), 1 h 20 mn
- elec Adnos I music for fixed sounds (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1974), 1 h 20 mn
- elec Transamorem – Transmortem music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1974), 60 mn
- elec E-5th music for fixed sounds (two frequency generators) (1975), variable
- elec Triptych music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1978), 1 h 1 mn 37 s
- elec Adnos II music for fixed sounds (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1980), 1 h 15 mn 30 s
- elec Adnos III prelude to Milarepa, music for fixed sounds (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1982), 1 h 16 mn
- elec Jetsun Mila music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1986), 1 h 26 mn
- elec Kyema music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1988), 1 h 1 mn 22 s
- elec Kailasha music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1991), 56 mn 8 s
- elec Koumé music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) (1993), 51 mn 17 s
- elec Danse des Dakinis music for pre-recorded sounds (ARP 2500 synthesizer and feedback on magnetic tape) (1998), 24 mn 33 s
- elec L'Île Re-sonante music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer and Serge Modular on magnetic tape) (2000), 55 mn
- Unspecified instrumentation
- Occam Delta X for trombone, horn and tuba
- Occam Delta XV for string quartet
- Occam Delta XVI for bassoon, tuba and harp
- Occam Delta XVIII for baritone, bass clarinet, alto saxophone, viola, 30 mn about
- Occam Hepta I for guitar, viola, trombone, trumpet, violin, bassoon, cello
- Occam River XIX for viola and baritone
- Occam River XXII for bass clarinet and saxophone, 28 mn about
- Occam XXII for a cappella voice
- Occam XXIII for alto saxophone
- Occam XXIV for alto and bass flute
- Occam XXV for organ, 40 mn about
- Occam XXVI for percussion
- Occam Delta IX for bassoon, tuba and cello
- Occam Delta VIII for bassoon, tuba, cello and harp
- Occam Delta XVII for bassoon, cello and harp
- Occam Hexa II for flute, clarinet, viola, cello and percussion
- Occam Océan I for large ensemble, 55 mn about
- Occam River X for bassoon and tuba
- Occam River XI for bassoon and cello
- Occam River XII for cello and harp
- Occam XIII for bassoon
- Occam XXI for violin
- Occam Delta VII for two violas and cello
- Occam River III for birbynė and trumpet, 22 mn about
- Occam River IV for tuba and cello
- Occam River IX for two violas
- Occam River V for viola and cello
- Occam River VI for contrabass recorder and harp
- Occam River VIII for bass clarinet and five-string double bass, 26 mn about
- Occam X for trumpet
- Occam XI for tuba
- Occam XIX for five-string double bass, 30 mn [program note]
- Occam XVI for bass clarinet, 23 mn about
- Occam XVIII for contrabass recorder
- elec Occam XX for EMS synthesizer
- Occam Delta III for violin, viola and cello
- Occam Delta IV for tuba, cello and harp
- Occam Delta V for bass clarinet, tuba, cello and harp, 20 mn about
- Occam Hexa I for bass clarinet, tuba, viola, cello and harp, 24 mn about
- elec Occam IX for digital spring spyre
- Occam River II for violin and cello
- Occam V for cello
- Occam VIII for cello
- Occam I for harp
- Naldjorlak III for two basset horns and cello, 50 mn about
- Naldjorlak II for two basset horns, 50 mn about
- Naldjorlak I for cello, 40 mn about
- Elemental II for variable number of musicians
- elec L'Île Re-sonante music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer and Serge Modular on magnetic tape), 55 mn
- elec Danse des Dakinis music for pre-recorded sounds (ARP 2500 synthesizer and feedback on magnetic tape), 24 mn 33 s
- elec Koumé music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape), 51 mn 17 s
- elec Kailasha music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape), 56 mn 8 s
- elec Kyema music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape), 1 h 1 mn 22 s
- elec Jetsun Mila music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape), 1 h 26 mn
- elec Les chants de Milarepa music for sounds fixed on medium (voice and ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape), 2 h 19 mn 34 s
- elec Adnos III prelude to Milarepa, music for fixed sounds (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape), 1 h 16 mn
- elec Adnos II music for fixed sounds (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape), 1 h 15 mn 30 s
- elec Triptych music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape), 1 h 1 mn 37 s
- elec E-5th music for fixed sounds (two frequency generators), variable
- elec Adnos I music for fixed sounds (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape), 1 h 20 mn
- elec Schlinen music for sounds fixed on a medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape) and solo music (Ondes Martenot), 12 mn
- elec Transamorem – Transmortem music for sounds fixed on medium (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape), 60 mn
- elec Arthésis music for sounds fixed on support (Moog modular synthesizer on magnetic tape), 25 mn
- elec Biogénésis music for sounds fixed on a support (heartbeats and ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape), 22 mn
- elec Psi 847 music for sounds fixed on support (ARP 2500 synthesizer on magnetic tape), 1 h 20 mn
- elec La noire = 40 music for sounds fixed on medium (feedback on magnetic tape)
- Labyrinthe sonore open work for six continuous sound sources, variable
- elec stage Omnht music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on magnetic tape), variable
- elec Opus 17 music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on magnetic tape), 1 h 36 mn
- elec Stress Osaka music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on magnetic tape), 11 mn 36 s
- elec Vice-Versa, etc... music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on magnetic tapes), variable
- elec In memoriam — Ostinato music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback by reinjection between two tape recorders, on magnetic tape), 24 mn 13 s
- elec stage Usral music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on 3 magnetic tapes of different lengths, asynchronous looped), variable
- elec ∑=a=b=a+b for Fahri, music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on magnetic tape), variable
- elec Accroméga music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on 2 asynchronous looped magnetic tapes), variable
- elec Elemental I music for sounds fixed on a medium (natural sounds processed in feedback on magnetic tapes), 11 mn 23 s
- elec Étude pour harpe I & II music for sounds fixed on a medium (for harp played with a razor, editing on magnetic tape), 9 mn
- elec Jouet électronique music for sounds fixed on a medium (feedback on magnetic tapes), 11 mn 55 s
- Chess game for variable formation (open work for classical instruments)
- Asymptote versatile for variable staff (open work for classical instruments)
- Date de composition inconnue
- Julia ECKHARDT, Intermediary Spaces / Espaces intermédiaires, Bruxelles, umland editions, 2019.
- Emanuelle MAJEAU-BETTEZ, « Cool Control, Occam, and Océan: The Radigue and Bozzini Game », Les Cahiers De La Société Québécoise De Recherche En Musique 18, no 1, 2017, pp. 51-66.
- Luke NICKEL, « Occam Notions: Collaboration and the Performer’s Perspective in Éliane Radigue’s Occam Ocean », Tempo 70, no 275, 2016, pp. 22-35.
- Portrait polychrome d’Eliane Radigue, ouvrage collectif, Paris, éd. Ina-GRM, 2013.
- Bernard GIRARD*, Entretiens avec Éliane Radigue*, Château Gontier, Aedam Musicae, coll. « Musiques XXe-XXIe siècles », 2013.
- Éliane RADIGUE, « The mysterious Power of the Infinitesimal », Leonardo Music Journal, vol.19, 2009, pp. 47- 49.
- Christine SIMÉONE, Elianarman – Bye Bye Ma Muse, Genève, Édition Fondation A.R.M.A.N., 2008.
- Les Îles résonnantes, réalisé par Juruna Mallon (2017).
- Eliane Radigue: L’écoute Virtuose, réalisé par Anaïs Prosaïc, Huit Production. La Huit, 2011. DVD.
- A Portrait of Eliane Radigue, réalisé par Cornelia Primosch, Daniela Swarowsky et Elizabeth Schimana, Institut Für Medienarchäologie – Portrait #4 09, 2006
- Grove music online, page Éliane Radigue : https://doi.org/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.2021217 (lien vérifié en octobre 2019).
- Éliane RADIGUE, Œuvres Électroniques, 14xCD INA-GRM, 2018, INA 6060/74.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Feedback Works, LP+EP Alga Marghen, 2012, plana-R alga040-041.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Elemental II, Kasper T. Toeplitz, CD Recordings Of Sleaze Art, 2012, r.o.s.a._07.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Geelriandre – Arthesis, CD Senufo Editions, 2011, senufo edition # twentyone.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Transmorem – Transmortem, CD Important Records, 2011, IMPREC337.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Jouet Electronique/Elemental I, EP Alga Marghen, 2010, plana-R alga029.
- Pauline OLIVEROS / Éliane RADIGUE / Yoshi WADA / Sun Circle, Attention Patterns, 2xLP Black Pollen Press, 2010, BLKPLN 0, Important Records, IMPREC 263.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Vice versa, etc…, 2xCD Important Records, 2009, IMPREC259.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Triptych, CD Important Records, 2009, IMPREC260.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Nardjorlak, Charles Curtis, CD Shiiin, 2008, shiiin 3.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Jetsun Mila, 2xCD Lovely Music, 2007, LCD 2003.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Chry-ptus, CD Schoolmap, 2007, School2.
- Éliane RADIGUE, L’Île Re-Sonante, CD Shiiin, 2005, shiiin1.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Adnos I-III, 3xCD Table Of The Elements, 2002, Cs55
- Éliane RADIGUE, Songs of Milarepa, 2xCD Lovely Music,1998, LCD 2001.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Trilogie de la Mort, 3xCD Experimental Intermedia Foundation, 1998, XI 119.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Biogenesis, miniCD Metamkine, 1996, MKCD 019.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Kyema, Intermediate States, CD Experimental Intermedia Foundation, 1990, XI 103.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Jetsun Mila, Casette C85 Lovely Music, 1987, LMC 2003.
- Éliane RADIGUE, Mila’s Journey Inspired By A Dream, CD Lovely Music, 1987, LCD 2002.